As a rule, three pawns can always unaided break through a barricade set up by an enemy pair of pawns, being as dangerous as a distant passed pawn. In such situations of crucial importance is which pawn is nearer to the promotion square. A far-advanced pawn majority may be superior to a passive distant passed pawn. That is also confirmed by the ending of the game Novak – Kalis, Czechoslovakia, 1958. Black’s main problem results from his king being too far away from his pawns on the kingside so the danger of a breakthrough hangs in the air. If his king were on d6, Black would draw easily by advancing the c-pawn and invading the e5-square.